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長庚大學管理學院

Standard 15: FACULTY QUALIFICATIONS AND ENGAGEMENT

Standard 15: The school maintains and strategically deploys participating and supporting faculty who collectively and individually demonstrate significant academic and professional engagement that sustains the intellectual capital necessary to support high-quality outcomes consistent with the school’s mission and strategies. [FACULTY QUALIFICATIONS AND ENGAGEMENT]

Definitions

Initial academic preparation is assessed by earned degrees and other academic credentials. Initial professional experience is assessed by the nature, level, and duration of leadership and management position(s) in the practice of business and/or other types of organizational work.

Sustained academic and professional engagement is combined with initial academic preparation and initial professional experience to maintain and augment qualifications (i.e., currency and relevance in the field of teaching) of a faculty member over time.

Academic engagement reflects faculty scholarly development activities that support integration of relevant, current theory of business and management consistent with the school’s mission, expected outcomes, and supporting strategies.

Professional engagement reflects faculty practice-oriented development activities that support integration of relevant, current practice of business and management consistent with the school’s mission, expected outcomes, and supporting strategies.

Qualified faculty status applies to faculty members who sustain intellectual capital in their fields of teaching, demonstrating currency and relevance of intellectual capital to support the school’s mission, expected outcomes, and strategies, including teaching, scholarship, and other mission components. Categories for specifying qualified faculty status are based on the initial academic preparation, initial professional experience, and sustained academic and professional engagement as described below.

- Scholarly Academics (SA) sustain currency and relevance through scholarship and related activities. Normally, SA status is granted to newly hired faculty members who earned their research doctorates within the last five years prior to the review dates. Subsequent to hiring, SA status is sustained as outlined below.

- Practice Academics (PA) sustain currency and relevance through professional engagement, interaction, and relevant activities. Normally, PA status applies to faculty members who augment their initial preparation as academic scholars with development and engagement activities that involve substantive linkages to practice, consulting, other forms of professional engagement, etc., based on the faculty members’ earlier work as an SA faculty member. PA status is sustained as outlined below.

- Scholarly Practitioners (SP) sustain currency and relevance through continued professional experience, engagement, or interaction and scholarship related to their professional background and experience. Normally, SP status applies to practitioner faculty members who augment their experience with development and engagement activities involving substantive scholarly activities in their fields of teaching. SP status is sustained as outlined below.

- Instructional Practitioners (IP) sustain currency and relevance through continued professional experience and engagement related to their professional backgrounds and experience. Normally, IP status is granted to newly hired faculty members who join the faculty with significant and substantive professional experience as outlined below. IP status is sustained as outlined below.

Documenting faculty qualification status requires the school to demonstrate faculty members are either “Scholarly Academics,” “Practice Academics,” “Scholarly Practitioners” or “Instructional Practitioners”. Those individuals who do not meet the criteria for these categories will be classified as “Other.”

Total faculty resources - The aggregate or total faculty resources (SA, PA, SP, IP, and other) is the sum of all full and partial (based on a measure of percent-of-time devoted to the school’s mission) assignments. For example, if a school has 12 faculty members who are 100 percent devoted to the mission and seven faculty members who are only 50 percent devoted to mission, total faculty resources equal 15.5.

Basis for Judgment

● The school must develop appropriate criteria consistent with its mission for the classification of faculty according to initial academic preparation, professional experience, ongoing scholarship, and ongoing professional engagement. The standard provides guidance only; each school should adapt this guidance to its particular situation and mission by developing and implementing criteria that indicate how the school is meeting the spirit and intent of the standard. The critical factor in determining whether faculty members bring current and relevant information is the alignment of their engagement activities with their primary teaching responsibilities and with the overall mission, expected outcomes and strategies of the school. Schools should develop specific policies to provide criteria by which qualifications status is granted and maintained. These criteria should address the following:

- The combinations of academic preparation and professional experience required of faculty at the time of hiring, as well as the types of academic and professional development activities required of faculty after they have been hired in order for them to sustain their qualification status.

- How it assigns priority and value to different continuing academic and professional engagement activities; how such assignments support its portfolio of SA, PA, SP, and IP faculty; and how this portfolio of faculty supports its mission, expected outcomes, and strategies.

- The qualitative standards it requires for various, specified development activities and illustrates the ways that it assures the quality of these activities.

- The depth, breadth, and sustainability of academic and professional engagement (linked to reasonable outcomes) that faculty members are expected to undertake within the typical five-year AACSB review cycle in order to maintain their qualification status.

These criteria may apply to the faculty resources as a whole or to segments of the faculty (e.g., by level, nature of teaching responsibilities and/or students served). Criteria for granting and for maintaining various qualifications for participating faculty who also hold significant administrative appointments (e.g., deans, associate deans, department head/chairs, or center directors) in the business school may reflect these important administrative roles.

● Normally, a doctoral degree emphasizing advanced foundational discipline-based research is appropriate initial academic preparation for SA and PA status, and there must be ongoing, sustained, and substantive academic and/or professional engagement activities supporting SA and PA status. Individuals with a graduate degree in law will normally be considered SA or PA for teaching business law and legal environment of business, subject to ongoing, sustained, and substantive academic and/or professional engagement activities demonstrating currency and relevance related to the teaching field.

● Faculty who have earned a doctoral degree will normally be considered SA or PA (depending on the nature of the doctoral degree and the school’s criteria) for a maximum of 5 years from the date the degree is awarded. Doctoral students who have achieved ABD status will normally be considered SA or PA (depending on the nature of the doctoral degree and the school’s criteria) for a maximum of 3 years from the date that ABD status is achieved.

● Individuals with a graduate degree in taxation or an appropriate combination of graduate degrees in law and accounting will normally be considered SA or PA to teach taxation subject to continued, sustained academic and professional engagement that demonstrates relevance and currency in the field of teaching.

● For SA and PA status, the less related faculty members’ doctoral degrees are to their fields of teaching, the more they must demonstrate higher levels of sustained, substantive academic and/or professional engagement to support their currency and relevance in their fields of teaching and their contributions to other mission components. In such cases, the burden of proof is on the school to make its case for SA or PA status.

● If individuals have doctoral degrees that are less foundational disciplined-based researchoriented or if their highest degrees are not doctorates, then they must demonstrate higher levels of sustained, substantive academic and/or professional engagement activities to support their currency and relevance in their fields of teaching and their contributions to other mission components. The burden of proof is on the school to make its case for SA or PA status in such cases. AACSB expects that there will be only a limited number (normally not to exceed 10%) of cases in which individuals without doctoral degrees also have SA or PA status.

● Academic and professional engagement activities must be substantive and sustained at levels that support currency and relevance for the school’s mission, expected outcomes, and strategies. Engagement can result from the work of a single faculty member, collaborations between and among multiple faculty, or collaborations between faculty and other scholars and/or practitioners.

● Normally, faculty members may undertake a variety of academic engagement activities consistent with the school’s mission-linked research of business and management to support maintenance of SA status. A non-exhaustive list of academic engagement activities may include the following:

- Scholarly activities leading to the production of scholarship outcomes as documented in Standard 2

- Relevant, active editorships with academic journals or other business publications

- Service on editorial boards or committees

- Validation of SA status through leadership positions, participation in recognized academic societies and associations, research awards, academic fellow status, invited presentations, etc.

● Normally, faculty may undertake a variety of professional engagement activities to interact with business and management practice to support maintenance of PA status. A non-exhaustive list of professional engagement activities may include the following:

- Consulting activities that are material in terms of time and substance

- Faculty internships

- Development and presentation of executive education programs

- Sustained professional work supporting qualified status

- Significant participation in business professional associations, professional standardsetting bodies or policy-making bodies

- Practice-oriented intellectual contributions detailed in Standard 2

- Relevant, active service on boards of directors

- Documented continuing professional education experiences

- Participation in professional events that focus on the practice of business, management, and related issues

- Participation in other activities that place faculty in direct contact with business or other organizational leaders

● Normally, at the time that a school hires an IP or SP faculty member, that faculty member’s professional experience is current, substantial in terms of duration and level of responsibility, and clearly linked to the field in which the person is expected to teach.

● The less related the faculty member’s initial professional experience is to the field of teaching or the longer the time since the relevant experience occurred, the higher the expectation is for that faculty member to demonstrate sustained academic and/or professional engagement related to the field of teaching in order to maintain professional qualifications.

● Normally, IP and SP faculty members also have master’s degrees in disciplines related to their fields of teaching. In limited cases, IP or SP status may be appropriate for individuals without master’s degrees if the depth, duration, sophistication, and complexity of their professional experience at the time of hiring outweighs their lack of master’s degree qualifications. In such cases, the burden of proof is on the school to make its case.

● For sustained SP status, a non-exhaustive list of academic and professional engagement activities may include the following:

- Relevant scholarship outcomes as documented in Standard 2

- Relevant, active editorships with academic, professional, or other business/management publications

- Service on editorial boards or committees

- Validation of SP status through leadership positions in recognized academic societies, research awards, academic fellow status, invited presentations, etc.

- Development and presentation of continuing professional education activities or executive education programs

- Significant participation in academic associations, professional standard-setting bodies or policy-making bodies

● For sustained IP status, a non-exhaustive list of professional engagement activities and interactions may include the following:

- Consulting activities that are material in terms of time and substance

- Faculty internships

- Development and presentation of executive education programs

- Sustained professional work supporting IP status

- Significant participation in business professional associations, professional standard setting bodies or policy-making bodies

- Relevant, active service on boards of directors

- Documented continuing professional education experiences

- Documented professional certifications in the area of teaching

- Participation in professional events that focus on the practice of business, management, and related issues

- Participation in other activities that place faculty in direct contact with business and other organizational leaders

● The school’s blend of SA, PA, SP, and IP faculty members in support of degree programs, locations, and disciplines and other mission components must result from a strategic choice and be consistent with the school’s mission, expected outcomes, and strategies. Making reference to Tables 15-2 and 15-1, the school describes how deployment of faculty has changed during the past five-years and articulates a well-developed plan for future faculty recruitment and deployment of qualified faculty in alignment with standards 15 and 2, in light of the school’s mission, strategies, expected outcomes and program mix.

● Normally, 90 percent of faculty resources are Scholarly Academics (SA), Practice Academics (PA), Scholarly Practitioners (SP), or Instructional Practitioners (IP).

● percent of faculty resources are Scholarly Academics (SA), Practice Academics (PA), or Scholarly Practitioners (SP).

● In the aggregate, qualifications in the school’s portfolio of participating and supporting faculty members are sufficient to support high-quality performance in all activities in support of the school’s mission, expected outcomes, and strategies.

● The school ensures students in all programs, disciplines, locations, and delivery modes are supported by high-quality learning experiences delivered or directed by an appropriate blend of qualified faculty that is strategically deployed and supported by an effective learning infrastructure. For example, schools with research doctoral and research master’s degree programs are expected to have higher percentages of SA and PA faculty, maintain a strong focus on SA faculty, and place high emphasis on faculty who possess research doctoral degrees and who undertake scholarly activities to maintain SA status. Schools that emphasize practice-oriented degrees may have a more balanced approach to the distribution of SA, PA, SP, IP, and other faculty members, subject to the limitations in the stated guidance and criteria that place high emphasis on a balance of theory and practice.

● Qualified faculty are appropriately distributed across all programs, disciplines, locations, and delivery modes. The deployment of faculty resources is consistent with mission, expected outcomes, and strategies.

Guidance for Documentation

General Guidance

● The school should provide its policies related to faculty qualifications, summarize its approach to the deployment of faculty resources across the business school, and explain how this approach is consistent with its mission, strategies, and expected outcomes.

● In cases of non-alignment with this standard, provide justification and evidence of overall high-quality. For example, disciplines such as tax, cybersecurity, brand management or other emerging disciplines may necessitate a different faculty staffing model.

● The school must provide information on each faculty member. Included should be evidence to support the classification of each faculty member. This information may be provided in the form of academic vitae or equivalent documents, but must include sufficient detail as to actions, impacts, and timing to support an understanding of faculty engagement activities and their impact on the deployment of qualified faculty resources.

● If the school offers a joint and/or dual degree with another institution, the faculty from the partner institution teaching courses in the curriculum for the home institution’s degree must be included in Tables 15-1 and 15-2.

● Deployment of qualified faculty is a strategic decision. In addition to Tables 15-2 and 15-1 that show faculty deployment during the year of record for an accreditation review, schools should provide, using a narrative, changes in the deployment of all classifications of faculty in the past five years and the strategies and plans for recruitment and deployment of qualified faculty in the next five years. Schools should articulate how the recruitment and deployment of faculty aligns with Standards 2 and 15.

● For interdisciplinary programs, faculty teaching non-business courses should not be included in Tables 15-1 or 15-2. Traditional business areas are described in Eligibility Criteria D.

● Describe the qualifications of teaching assistants, tutors, instructors, or other support staff involved in alternative delivery models. Provide evidence that describes how such models maintain high quality outcomes.

Completion of Table 15-1

● Table 15-1 must be completed to document the qualification status of participating and supporting faculty members, the percent of their time that is devoted to mission, and the ways their work aligns with the objective expectations detailed above. Table 15-1 must not include faculty members who left prior to the normal academic year reflected in the table. Table 15-1 must include faculty members who joined the business school during the normal academic year reflected in the table. Peer review teams may request documentation for additional years; for individual terms; or by program, location, delivery mode, and/or disciplines.

● This summary information is useful in assisting the peer review team in its initial assessment of alignment with Standards 5 and 15. The summary information allows the team to effectively focus its in-depth review of individual faculty vitae or other documents supporting the conclusions presented in the table. List all faculty contributing to the mission of the school, including participating and supporting faculty, graduate students who have formal teaching responsibilities, and administrators holding faculty rank. For faculty not engaged in teaching, leave columns 4 and 5 (Faculty Sufficiency) blank. Faculty who left during the time frame would ordinarily not be included. Faculty members who joined the school for any part of the time frame are to be included. The school must explain the “normal academic year” format/schedule. Peer review teams may request documentation for additional years; for individual terms; or by programs, location, delivery mode, and/or discipline.

● The measure of “teaching productivity” must reflect the operations of the business school, e.g., student credit hours (SCHs), European Credit Transfer Units (ECTUs), contact hours, individual courses, modules, or other designations that are appropriately indicative of the teaching contributions of each faculty member. Concurrence on all aspects of the metric must be reached with the peer review team early in the review process. If a faculty member has no teaching responsibilities, he or she must be listed and reflected in the qualifications section of the table. Online courses should use the same teaching metric being used for inperson courses and the manner in which this is calculated should be described.

● Indicate the normal professional responsibilities of each faculty member using the following guide: UT for undergraduate teaching; MT for master’s level teaching; DT for doctoral level teaching/mentoring; ADM for administration; RES for research; ED for executive education; SER for other service and outreach responsibilities. A faculty member may have more than one category assigned. Individuals who teach only in non-credit executive education programs should not be listed in this table.

● For faculty qualifications based on engagement activities, faculty members may be Scholarly Academic (SA), Practice Academic (PA), Scholarly Practitioner (SP), Instructional Practitioner (IP), or Other (O). Faculty members should be assigned one of these designations based on the school’s criteria for initial qualifications and continuing engagement activities that support currency and relevance in the teaching field and to support other mission components. Faculty may meet the school’s criteria for more than one category (e.g. SA and PA) but must be listed in only one category. Doctoral students who have obtained ABD status are normally considered SA or PA (depending on the nature of the doctoral degree) for 3 years. Faculty who have earned a doctoral degree will normally be considered SA or PA (depending on the nature of the doctoral degree) for 5 years from the date the degree is awarded. The “Other” category should be used for those individuals holding a faculty title but whose qualifications do not meet the criteria established by the school for SA, PA, SP, or IP status.

● The “percent of time devoted to mission” reflects each faculty member’s contributions to the school’s overall mission during the period of evaluation. Reasons for less than 100 percent might include part-time employment, shared appointment with another academic unit, or other assignments that make the faculty member partially unavailable to the school. A fulltime faculty member’s percent of time devoted to mission is 100 percent. For doctoral students who have formal teaching duties, the percent of time devoted to mission should reflect their teaching duties only, and not any other activities associated with their roles as a student, e.g., work on a dissertation. For example, a doctoral student who teaches one class over the normal academic year, and a part-time faculty member whose responsibilities are limited to the same level of activity, should be assigned the same “percent of time devoted to mission.” A faculty member teaching in more than one discipline may be listed multiple times, but the percent of time devoted to mission should be reflected proportionally in each discipline and not be more than 100 percent. For part-time faculty, the expected percentage is less than 100 percent and should reflect the amount of time devoted to the mission. If a school used a full-time equivalent (FTE) human resources system, then the FTE may be a reasonable approximation for “percent of time devoted to mission.” In the absence of an FTE system, the school should have a rational manner of assigning the percentage to parttime faculty that is agreed to by the Peer Review Team well in advance of the submission of the report.

Completion of Table 15-2

● The school should provide an analysis of the deployment of SA, PA, SP, IP, and other faculty by degree program level (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral). Bachelor’s degrees can be combined into one line; postgraduate degrees should be broken out by degree program. The school must complete Table 15-2 in the format provided in this document to demonstrate deployment of faculty resources across each degree program level. Deployment should be consistent with mission, expected outcomes, and strategies. Peer review teams may request more detail related to a discipline, program, delivery mode, and/or location.

● Provide information for the most recently completed normal academic year. Percentages should be provided for each individual degree program. Each cell represents the percent of total teaching (whether measured by credit hours, contact hours, courses taught or another metric appropriate to the school) for each degree program at each level, by faculty qualifications status. Peer review teams may also request faculty deployment by program location and/or delivery mode. The sum across each row should total 100 percent. Provide a brief analysis that explains the deployment of faculty, as noted above, to mission, expected outcomes, and strategies.

● All cells should be formatted consistently and reflected as percentages (e.g. 40%).

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